Windows can be used in a building with various goals, including aesthetic and functional characteristics. The windows produced by Flora include the highest value of both these characteristics. It is provided thanks to wood as the framing material, the modern production process and the used profile solutions. By combining all solutions, our clients acquire windows that serve for a lifetime.
Windows are produced after individual orders and that is why we are not limited by any windows size standards. This circumstance is the very reason why we are able to provide many interesting window orders for historic buildings. On the other hand, adjusting to individual orders ensures that we are able to produce windows both for standard apartment buildings and exclusive private properties with exclusive needs. You can learn more about the projects we have realized in Gallery.
You can learn more about the technological solutions we offer to clients by reading below or checking the description of each product. What we want to highlight is that our windows are produced with the thickness of profile being from 68 mm to 90 mm. They can be with both single-chamber or double-chamber glass which offers elevated sound and thermal insulation. Flora produces wooden windows with painted frames and also wooden windows with aluminium lining.
Wooden window frame and sash
Wooden window frame and sash are made from laminated wooden scantlings consisting of multiple layers glued in thickness (lamellae). The middle lamellae of the scantling are usually finger-jointed, the external can be both jointed (the so-called “glued” or optimized scantlings) and solid unjointed (fixed scantlings). Windows are most commonly made from pine or oak scantlings; however, material of other wood species is also available, for instance, larch, meranti, sipo etc.
The width of frame and sash profiles is usually 80mm, thickness 68, 78, 90 or 98mm. Windows opening inwards. The bottom of the frame contains cuts for easy installation of internal and external windowsills.
For finishing of windows and other structures, we apply the water-based impregnant, primer, paints and varnishes produced by Teknos. We offer 54 tones of tinted varnish and covering paints according to RAL or NCS catalogues.
Thermal conductivity coefficient of a window
Thermal conductivity coefficient of a window Uw represents the heat loss through a square meter of the window area when the temperature difference is 1°C. The lower the number, the more energy-efficient is the window (saving heat). According to the standard DIN EN ISO 10077-1, it is calculated and also verified for turn-only windows with dimensions 1230*1480mm. Uw is mainly determined by thermal conductivity of the insulating glass unit and wooden frame and sash, as well as by the spacers of the insulating glass unit and sash seals. By choosing an insulating glass unit with the so-called “warm” spacer, Uw of the window may be reduced by approximately 0.1 W/m2*K. Since usually the thermal conductivity of an insulating glass unit is significantly lower than that of the wooden frame and sash, then Uw will be higher for a smaller window and window with divisions. This means that heat losses through a square meter of the window will increase. For wooden windows, Uw ranges from 0.7 to 1.8 W/m2*K depending on the profile system, the type, size and configuration of the insulating glass unit.
Insulating glass unit
An insulating glass unit consists of 2 (a single-chamber unit) or 3 (a double-chamber unit) glasses and separating slats or spacers, the whole structure is glued and sealed using a butyl sealant. Spacers usually are made of aluminium or aluminium combined with plastic materials (the so-called “warm” spacers). The space between the glasses is filled with argon. Energy-efficient insulating glass units feature a special (selective) coating on the glass surface, which reflects the infrared (heat) radiation back into the room reducing heat loss. This feature of the insulating glass unit is characterized by thermal permeability coefficient Ug (W/m2*K). The smaller the coefficient, the less heat is lost through the insulating glass unit. For a single-chamber insulating glass unit (with 2 glasses) the Ug value is around 1.1 W/m2*K, for a double-chamber (with 3 glasses) it ranges from 0.8 up to 0.5 W/m2*K, depending on the glass type, the type of selective coating and thickness of the insulating glass unit. For comparison – for a 4mm single-layer glazing Ug =5.7 W/m2*K.
The sound insulation
The range of human ear sensitivity is extremely wide, therefore in acoustics the sound intensity is measured in logarithmic units – decibels (dB). The quietest sound a human ear can perceive (threshold of hearing) is assumed to be 0 dB. Different volume levels can be roughly described as follows:
20 dB- rustling leaves (100 times greater sound intensity than 0dB)
30 dB- whisper (1000 times greater sound intensity than 0dB)
40 dB- peaceful classroom (10000 times greater sound intensity than 0dB)
50 dB- a passing car (100000 times greater sound intensity than 0dB)
60 dB- human speech (1000000 times greater sound intensity than 0dB)
80 dB- heavy traffic in city
100 dB- perforator
120 dB- rock concert
140 dB- pain threshold (100000000000000 times greater sound intensity than 0dB)
180 dB- rocket launch
Therefore, if the sound insulation of a window is 30 dB, which means loss of sound intensity by 1000 times, the human voice speaking outside the window we hear as a whisper. The change in volume by 3 dB people perceive as barely noticeable.